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Title: Malaria in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela: current challenges in malaria control and elimination
Authors: Recht, Judith
Siqueira, André M.
Monteiro, Wuelton M.
Herrera, Sonia M.
Herrera, Sócrates
Lacerda, Marcus V. G.
Affilliation: Independent consultant. Recife, PE, Brazil.
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado. Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa. Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.
Centro de Investigación Científca Caucaseco. Cali, Colombia.
Centro de Investigación Científca Caucaseco. Cali, Colombia.
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane. Manaus, AM, Brasil / Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado. Manaus, AM, Brasil / Instituto Elimina. Manaus, AM, Brasil.
Abstract: In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Challenges to continuing efforts to further decrease malaria incidence in this region include: a significant increase in malaria cases in recent years in Venezuela, evidence of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections, peri-urban malaria, gold mining-related malaria, malaria in pregnancy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and primaquine use, and possible under-detection of Plasmodium malariae. Some of these challenges underscore the need to implement appropriate tools and procedures in specific regions, such as a field-compatible molecular malaria test, a P. malariae-specific test, malaria diagnosis and appropriate treatment as part of regular antenatal care visits, G6PD test before primaquine administration for P. vivax cases (with weekly primaquine regimen for G6PD deficient individuals), single low dose of primaquine for P. falciparum malaria in Colombia, and national and regional efforts to contain malaria spread in Venezuela urgently needed especially in mining areas. Joint efforts and commitment towards malaria control and elimination should be strategized based on examples of successful regional malaria fighting initiatives, such as PAMAFRO and RAVREDA/AMI.
Keywords: Plasmodium
South America
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: BMC
Citation: RECHT, Judith et al. Malaria in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela: current challenges in malaria control and elimination. Malaria Journal, v. 16, n. 273, p. 1-18, 2017.
DOI: 10.1186/s12936-017-1925-6
ISSN: 1475-2875
Copyright: open access
Appears in Collections:AM - ILMD - Artigos de Periódicos
INI - Artigos de Periódicos

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