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RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS USED AS DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS FOR LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS
Pastor, André Filipe et al. | Date Issued: 2021
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Aggeu Magalhães. Recife, PE, Brasil. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sertão Pernambucano. Floresta, PE, Brazil. Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Aggeu Magalhães. Serviço de Referência Nacional em Filarioses. Recife, PE, Brazil. Secretaria de Saúde do Estado de Pernambuco. Laboratório do Hospital Otávio de Freitas. Recife, PE, Brazil.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic disease caused by the worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori. It is a tropical and subtropical illness that affects approximately 67 million people worldwide and that still requires better diagnostic tools to prevent its spread and enhance the effectiveness of control procedures. Traditional parasitological tests and diagnostic methods based on whole protein extracts from different worms are known for problems related to sample time collection, sensitivity, and specificity. More recently, new diagnostic tools based on immunological methods using recombinant antigens have been developed. The current review describes the several recombinant antigens used as tools for lymphatic filariasis diagnosis in antigen and antibody capture assays, highlighting their advantages and limitations as well as the main commercial tests developed based on them. The literature chronology is from 1991 to 2021. First, it describes the historical background related to the identification of relevant antigens and the generation of the recombinant polypeptides used for the LF diagnosis, also detailing features specific to each antigen. The subsequent section then discusses the use of those proteins to develop antigen and antibody capture tests to detect LF. So far, studies focusing on antibody capture assays are based on 13 different antigens with at least six commercially available tests, with five proteins further used for the development of antigen capture tests. Five antigens explored in this paper belong to the SXP/RAL-2 family (BmSXP, Bm14, WbSXP-1, Wb14, WbL), and the others are BmShp-1, Bm33, BmR1, BmVAH, WbVAH, BmALT-1, BmALT-2, and Wb123. It is expected that advances in research with these antigens will allow further development of tests combining both sensitivity and specificity with low costs, assisting the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF).