Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://www.arca.fiocruz.br/handle/icict/10128
Title: Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region
Authors: Costa, Anielle de Pina
Brasil, Patrícia
Di Santi, Sílvia Maria
Araujo, Mariana Pereira de
Mutis, Martha Cecilia Suárez
Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva
Ferreira, Joseli Oliveira
Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço de
Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel
Affilliation: Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas. Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Doenças Febris Agudas. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas. Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Doenças Febris Agudas. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Secretaria de Saúde do Estado de São Paulo. Núcleo de Estudos em Malária. Superintendência de Controle de Endemias. São Paulo, SP, Brasi / Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Programa Nacional de Controle da Malária. Brasilia, DF, Brasil.
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Programa Nacional de Controle da Malária. Brasilia, DF, Brasil.
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Laboratório de Imunoparasitologia. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas. Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Doenças Febris Agudas. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil / Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Laboratório de Transmissores de Hematozoários Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas. Laboratório de Pesquisa Clínica em Doenças Febris Agudas. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil / Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Laboratório de Pesquisa em Malária. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Abstract: Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or to be very close to) P. vivax and, in a less extent, by Plasmodium malariae and it is transmitted by the bromeliad mosquito Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii. This paper deals mainly with the two profiles of malaria found outside the Amazon: the imported and ensuing introduced cases and the autochthonous cases. We also provide an update regarding the situation in Brazil and the Brazilian endemic Amazon.
keywords: Nyssorhynchus
Malária Símia
DeCS: Malária
Brasil
Ecossistema Amazônico/estatística & dados numéricos
Anopheles
Plasmodium vivax
Plasmodium malariae
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium ovale
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Citation: COSTA, Anielle de Pina et al. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. Rio de Janeiro, v.109, n.5, p.618-633, 2014.
DOI: 10.1590/0074-0276140228
ISSN: 0074-0276
Copyright: open access
Appears in Collections:IOC - Artigos de Periódicos
INI - Artigos de Periódicos

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Malaria in Brazil What happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.pdf1.66 MBAdobe PDFView/Open


FacebookTwitterDeliciousLinkedInGoogle BookmarksBibTex Format mendeley Endnote DiggMySpace

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.