Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://www.arca.fiocruz.br/handle/icict/10441
Title: Influence of household rat infestation on leptospira transmission in the urban slum environment.
Authors: Costa, Federico
Ribeiro, Guilherme de Sousa
Felzemburgh, Ridalva Dias Martins
Santos, Norlan de Jesus
Reis, Renato Barbosa
Santos, Andreia Carvalho dos
Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé
Araújo, Wildo Navegantes de
Santana, Carlos
Childs, James E
Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos
Ko, Albert Icksang
Affilliation: Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz. Salvador, BA, Brasil / Yale University. School of Public Health. Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. New Haven, Connecticut, USA / Universidade Federal da Bahia. Instituto de Saúde Coletiva. Salvador, BA, Brasil
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz. Salvador, BA, Brasil / Universidade Federal da Bahia. Instituto de Saúde Coletiva. Salvador, BA, Brasil
Universidade Federal da Bahia. Salvador, BA, Brasil
Universidade Federal da Bahia. Salvador, BA, Brasil
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz. Salvador, BA, Brasil
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz. Salvador, BA, Brasil
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz. Salvador, BA, Brasil / Universidade Federal da Bahia. Salvador, BA, Brasil
University of Brasília. Ceilândia, DF, Brasil
Ministry of Health. Zoonosis Control Center. Salvador, BA, Brasil
Yale University. School of Public Health. Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz. Salvador, BA, Brasil
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz. Salvador, BA, Brasil / Yale University. School of Public Health. Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases. New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13-11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06-7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28-6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21-6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71-0.84). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may therefore be an effective risk stratification strategy for targeting control measures in slum settings of high leptospirosis transmission.
keywords: Leptopirose
Leptospira
Animais
Ratos
Transmissão
Fatores de risco
Infecção
Humanos
Infestação
Zona urbana
Favelas
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: COSTA, F. et al. Influence of household rat infestation on leptospira transmission in the urban slum environment. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 8, n. 12, p. e3338, 2014.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003338
ISSN: 1935-2735
Copyright: open access
Appears in Collections:BA - IGM - Artigos de Periódicos

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