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Title: Alcohol misuse among partners: a potential effect modifier in the relationship between physical intimate partner violence and postpartum depression
Authors: Lobato, Gustavo
Moraes, Claudia L.
Dias, Alessandra S.
Reichenheim, Michael E.
Affilliation: Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Fernandes Figueira. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Instituto de Medicina Social. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Instituto de Medicina Social. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Instituto de Medicina Social. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Instituto de Medicina Social. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Abstract: PURPOSE: This study evaluated if the probability of postpartum depression (PPD) increases with an upward gradient of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy and whether substance use by any member of the couple modifies this relationship. METHODS: The sample comprised 811 randomly selected mothers of children under 5 months old attending primary health services of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) gauged physical IPV, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) assessed PPD. A hierarchical logistic regression model was employed to deal with confounding. Specific interaction terms between physical IPV and alcohol misuse or use of illicit drugs were also tested. RESULTS: Physical IPV during pregnancy was reported by 37.8% of respondents and 24.3% were presumably depressed (EPDS score ≥ 12). Interaction between physical IPV and partners' alcohol misuse was statistically significant (p = 0.026). Although there was a significant increase in PPD with just one act of physical IPV in the absence of a partners' alcohol misuse, mounting acts did not have any further influence. Conversely, when partners misused alcohol, the probability progressively and steeply increased from two acts onwards, reaching almost sevenfold by six cumulative physical IPV events as opposed to none. CONCLUSIONS: The results reinforce the relevance of physical IPV as a risk factor to PPD. They also suggest that context matters, partners' alcohol misuse acting as an important effect modifier. These evidences justify tailored preventive, screening and intervention procedures for IPV and alcohol misuse during pregnancy and the postpartum period.
Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence
Domestic Violence
Alcohol Abuse
Postpartum Depression
Risk Factor
DeCS: Intoxicação Alcoólica - psicologia
Depressão Pós-Parto - epidemiologia
Depressão Pós-Parto - etiologia
Violência Doméstica - psicologia
Parceiros Sexuais
Fator de Risco
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: Springer International
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Citation: LOBATO, Gustavo et al. Alcohol misuse among partners: a potential effect modifier in the relationship between physical intimate partner violence and postpartum depression. Soc. psychiatr. psychiatr. epidemiol., Berlin, v. 47, n. 3, p. 427-438, mar. 2012.
DOI: 10.1007/s00127-011-0346-z
Copyright: restricted access
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