Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://www.arca.fiocruz.br/handle/icict/8061
Title: A rede trófica e o papel dos carnívoros silvestres (ordem carnivora) nos ciclos de transmissão de Trypanosoma cruzi
Advisor: Jansen, Ana Maria
Members of the board: Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos Santos
Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto
Rodrigues, Flávio Henrique Guimarães
Mello Neto, Cicero Brasileiro de
Araújo, Adauto José Gonçalves de
Authors: Rocha, Fabiana Lopes
Affilliation: Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
Abstract: Diversos surtos epidêmicos causados por agentes patogênicos provocaram severo declínio em populações de carnívoros selvagens nas últimas décadas. Além desse impacto às populações silvestres, há a preocupação de transmissão de alguns desses agentes à população humana e animais domésticos. De fato, as alterações ambientais têm provocado mudanças na relação patógeno-hospedeiro. Desta forma, o monitoramento da saúde de animais silvestres é importante componente no estabelecimento de programas de controle e erradicação de doenças e na elaboração de políticas de saúde pública e animal e de manejo e conservação de espécies selvagens. Considerando o papel dos mamíferos da ordem Carnívora na cadeia trófica, estes podem ser usados como sentilas sendo alvos estratégicos em programas de vigilância para detecção de patógenos Neste artigo serão revisados estudos de caso dos principais patógenos que acometem mamíferos selvagens, com ênfase nas espécies da fauna brasileira. Os métodos laboratoriais utilizados nos estudos de exposição dos carnívoros brasileiros a patógenos serão discutidos e considerações sobre estratégias para minimizar seus impactos sobre a fauna silvestre, bem como os possíveis métodos para controle de patógenos causadores de zoonoses em carnívoros
Abstract: Little is known on the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the different trophic levels of the food web and on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores, the mammalian group target of this study, in the transmission cycles of this parasite. T. cruzi , the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is a multihost parasite immersed in complex transmission networks that include hundreds of mammalian species and dozens of triatomines species, the insect vectors. The new epidemiological scenario, expressed by the growing number of human cases due to T. cruzi oral infection, demonstrate that numerous aspects of Chagas disease epidemiology still remain unclear. The primarly enzootic nature of this parasitosis emphasize the importance of looking at the sylvatic cycle to examine the role of the different mammalian species in the maintenance of the parasite in order to understand this new scenario. Therefore, we examined six mammalian orders, domestic dogs and feral pigs for T. cruzi infection and its distinct genotypes, through serologic, parasitological and molecular tests, during a seven-year follow-up in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. We demonstrated that the reservoir system in the Pantanal includes host species that occupy all habitat types and forest strata, constituting a transmission network involving generalist and specialist mammalian species that are linked through a robust food-web connection. In this system, the coati ( Nasua nasua ) was considered the main T. cruzi reservoir, and demonstrated potential to act as a bioacumulator and disperser of all the T. cruzi genotypes detected in the region, TcI, TcII and TcIII/IV. The extension of our studies to the Serra da Canastra National Park (SCNP) - Minas Gerais State, and to the Araguari/Cumari regions (Minas Gerais/Goias States) provided evidence that the participation of wild carnivores in the T. cruzi transmission cycles was not a punctual finding, given that the seven carnivore species examined in the three study sites were infected by T. cruzi. Infectivity potential (expressed by positive hemoculture) was demonstrated in a felid from the SCNP, the ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis ), and in two procyonid species from the Pantanal, the coati and the raccoon ( Procyon cancrivorus ). In the SCNP, domestic dogs demonstrated to be good sentinels for T. cruzi transmission areas and the distinct genotypes circulating in the region, TcI and TcII. Additionally, we provided a comprehensive analysis of infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, by assembling our data with T. cruzi infection on South America carnivores’ literature records. Twelve out of twenty-one Neotropical carnivores evaluated species were described to be infected by T. cruzi, besides other three species found infected in the present study: the ocelot, the puma ( Puma concolor ) and the maned wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ). Each species demonstrated a different potential to maintain and disperse T. cruzi , according their ecological characteristics and peculiarities of the different study areas. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates: the higher the proportion of invertebrates in species diet, the greater T. cruzi infection rate. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies, which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that can be bioaccumulator of T. cruzi genotypes, seem to take place at the top of T. cruzi transmission chain; therefore, they may have a huge impact on the transmission cycles of this parasite.
DeCS: Níveis Tróficos
Doença de Chagas
Trypanosoma cruzi
Carnívoros
Issue Date: 2013
Citation: ROCHA, Fabiana Lopes. A rede trófica e o papel dos carnívoros silvestres (ordem carnivora) nos ciclos de transmissão de Trypanosoma cruzi. 2013. 130f.Tese (Doutorado em Biologia Parasitária) – Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz,2013.
Date of defense: 2013
Place of defense: Rio de Janeiro/RJ
Department: Pós-Graduação em Biologia Parasitária
Defense institution: Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Program: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Parasitária
Copyright: open access
Appears in Collections:IOC - PGBP - Teses de Doutorado

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